Coronal mass ejection ielts reading answers

A In recent years we have all been exposed to dire media reports concerning the impending demise of global coal and oil reserves, but the depletion of another key non-renewable resource continues without receiving much press at all.

Helium — an inert, odourless, monatomic element known to lay people as the substance that makes balloons float and voices squeak when inhaled — could be gone from this planet within a generation. B Helium itself is not rare; there is actually a plentiful supply of it in the cosmos. Because of its lightness, however, most helium vanished from our own planet many years ago. Consequently, only a miniscule proportion — 0.

Helium is the by-product of millennia of radioactive decay from the elements thorium and uranium. The helium is mostly trapped in subterranean natural gas bunkers and commercially extracted through a method known as fractional distillation.

C The loss of helium on Earth would affect society greatly. Defying the perception of it as a novelty substance for parties and gimmicks, the element actually has many vital applications in society. Probably the most well known commercial usage is in airships and blimps non-flammable helium replaced hydrogen as the lifting gas du jour after the Hindenburg catastrophe induring which an airship burst into flames and crashed to the ground killing some passengers and crew.

coronal mass ejection ielts reading answers

But helium is also instrumental in deep-sea diving, where it is blended with nitrogen to mitigate the dangers of inhaling ordinary air under high pressure; as a cleaning agent for rocket engines; and, in its most prevalent use, as a coolant for superconducting magnets in hospital MRI magnetic resonance imaging scanners. D The possibility of losing helium forever poses the threat of a real crisis because its unique qualities are extraordinarily difficult, if not impossible to duplicate certainly, no biosynthetic ersatz product is close to approaching the point of feasibility for helium, even as similar developments continue apace for oil and coal.

According to Dr. The worsening global shortage could render millions of dollars of high-value, life-saving equipment totally useless. The dwindling supplies have already resulted in the postponement of research and development projects in physics laboratories and manufacturing plants around the world. There is an enormous supply and demand imbalance partly brought about by the expansion of high-tech manufacturing in Asia.

National Helium Reserve to liquidate its helium assets by regardless of the market price. Although intended to settle the original cost of the reserve by a U.

Congress ignorant of its ramifications, the result of this fire sale is that global helium prices are so artificially deflated that few can be bothered recycling the substance or using it judiciously. Deflated values also mean that natural gas extractors see no reason to capture helium. Much is lost in the process of extraction. As Sobotka notes: "[t]he government had the good vision to store helium, and the question now is: Will the corporations have the vision to capture it when extracting natural gas, and consumers the wisdom to recycle?

For Nobel-prize laureate Robert Richardson, the U. For Richardson, a twenty- to fifty-fold increase in prices would provide incentives to recycle.

F A number of steps need to be taken in order to avert a costly predicament in the coming decades. Firstly, all existing supplies of helium ought to be conserved and released only by permit, with medical uses receiving precedence over other commercial or recreational demands.They crossed ahead of us later.

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Adjective endings in English 33 - Using identical pairs to emphasize your point 34 - How to talk about your friends in English 35 - 6 words with meanings that will surprise you 36 - Quick Slang — Talking about being excited! She or her? They or them? Given name? Which exam should you take? Visitors Map Thanks for visiting over last year. King Air C Citation S Falcon Fokker Head-UP Display.In the past two days, the sun has unleashed three monster solar flares from a sunspot group the size of Jupiter.

These powerful phenomena are amazing to watch, but if they were pointed toward the Earth, they would spell big trouble. Radiation from the sun's coronal mass ejections CMEs could disrupt our power grids and satellites. Unfortunately, the sun and its atmosphere are devilishly hard to predict. But new research published today in Nature reveals new information about how CMEs form, which could help scientists improve their forecast.

One model says CMEs happen when a rope-like structure of magnetic flux gets twisted up, becomes unstable, and breaks. At that point, magnetic reconnection powers the ejection. The second model says the reverse is true, arguing that the flux rope forms because of the magnetic reconnection. To find the best fit, the researchers looked at data from a real X-class solar flare from that came with an accompanying CME.

The Japanese Hinode spacecraft was staring at the sun when these eruptions happened; that allowed the scientists to track the blasts and emulate them in a computer model of the sun. According to their data, the first theory is correct. Four days before the eruption, magnetic energy in the region was low but was beginning to build up.

Then, one day before the eruption, a rope of magnetic flux mushroomed from the sun's surface, becoming unstable as the underlying magnetic energy squeezed it upward. Eventually the tension couldn't hold and the rope snapped. This drove a mass ejection, sending a stream of particles hurtling toward Earth. The arching rainbow that the scientists saw in their study is not the magnetic field itself—that's invisible.

Instead, it's the sun's atmospheric plasma, which is so highly charged that it has no choice but to trace the magnetic fields. This can make the guesswork tricky, notes Jaroslav Dudik, a scientist at Cambridge University who studies mathematical models of the sun and who was not involved in this new work. Scientists aren't sure exactly what causes the magnetic fields to tangle up and become unstable in the first place, but they think it has to do with movements of solar plasma.

In spots where the magnetic field penetrates the visible face of the sun, plasma jostles the magnetic fields around, causing them to dance wildly, braid and snap, and ultimately reconnect with each other. Several groups of solar scientists are working on these problems, trying to plug in real data from sun-observing satellites to improve their models. The ultimate goal is to predict solar flares and eruptions so we and our satellites aren't caught off guard the next time the sun hurls radiation our way.

However, predicting solar flares and eruptions is one of the most important goals of solar physics. I remain optimistic about the prospects. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories.

Which Came First? Related: The Looming Threat of a Solar Superstorm The arching rainbow that the scientists saw in their study is not the magnetic field itself—that's invisible.Anonymous comments are disabled in this journal.

Your IP address will be recorded. Recommend this entry Has been recommended Send news. Log in No account? Create an account. Remember me. Facebook VKontakte Google. Previous Share Flag Next. Text: Surviving in Space A voyage to Mars may be every astronaut's dream, but the health risks are formidable Motion sickness afflicts more than two-thirds of all astronauts upon reaching orbit, even veteran test pilots who have never been airsick.

Though everyone recovers after a few days in space, body systems 5 continue to change. Deprived of gravity information, a confused brain engenders visual illusions. Body fluids surge to chest and head.

The heart enlarges slightly, as do other organs. Sensing too much fluid, the body begins to excrete it, including calcium, electrolytes and blood 10 plasma. The production of red blood cells decreases, rendering astronauts slightly anaemic.

With the loss of fluid, legs shrink. Spinal discs expand, and so does the astronaut - who may gain five centimetres and suffer backache. Though the process may sound terrible, 15 astronauts adjust to it, come to enjoy it and seem no worse for wear - at least for short missions such as space shuttle flights that last a week or two.

During longer flights, however, physiology enters an unknown realm. As director of Russia's Institute for 20 Biomedical Problems from toOleg Gazenko watched cosmonauts return from long flights unable to stand without fainting, needing to be carried from the spacecraft. NASA geared up to see how - even if- humans would survive the most demanding of space ventures, a mission to Mars, which could last up to three years. Jeffrey Sutton, leader of the medical systems team at the NSBRI, has treated the head trauma, wounds, kidney stones and heart rhythm irregularities that one could encounter on the way to Mars.

On the spacecraft he envisions, Mars-bound in the year, say,there may lurk harmful bacteria or carbon monoxide. No problem. The deadly substances will be detected by smart sensors - microprocessors no bigger than a thumbnail - that roam autonomously through the spacecraft, communicating their finds to a computer that warns the crew. To cope with infection, Sutton plans a factory to make drugs, even new ones, to cope with possible organisms on Mars.

coronal mass ejection ielts reading answers

Miniature optical and ultrasound devices will image body and brain, while a small X-ray machine keeps track of any bone loss. Smart sensors embedded in clothing will monitor an astronaut's vital functions. The crew will be able to craft body parts, Sutton says, precisely tooled to an astronaut's personal anatomy and genome stored in computer memory. Researchers are building artificial liver, bone and cartilage tissue right now.

Lying in wait beyond the Earth's atmosphere, solar radiation poses additional problems. Coronal mass ejections fling billions of tons of electrically charged gas into space, relegating Earth's volcanic eruptions to mere hiccups.

coronal mass ejection ielts reading answers

Nevertheless, NASA officials are confident that accurate monitoring will warn astronauts of such events, allowing the crew to take refuge in an area where polyethylene shielding will absorb the radiation.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Physics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for active researchers, academics and students of physics. It only takes a minute to sign up. I have seen some material which estimates the probability of Earth being struck by a Carrington-level CME over some time into the future. These estimates seem to be derived from historical data of CME events which actually hit or nearly hit the Earth.

Given that a Carrington-level CME has happened somewhere on the surface of the sunwhat is the probability of it actually hitting the Earth? I'm talking about a "direct hit" insofar as it would cause widespread damage.

Only about 30 per year hit Earth, and most of these are not direct hits. During the decade to11, CMEs were observed. About ten percent were halo eventsor CMEs directed toward the Earth. Only about of these halo events were associated with X-class solar flaresthe biggest flares. The question the OP is asking is summarized in one of his comments, below: "Suppose the Sun only ever emitted one CME in the course of its entire lifetime, and the magnitude of that CME was on par with Carrington.

What is the probability that the Earth is hit, in that single instance, and that the hit is "direct" enough to cause serious damage? If a Carrington-level direct hit would require the Earth to be exactly in the center of the CME's expanding wavefront, the probability may be calculated as follows:. The surface area of the Sun is 6.

The diameter of the Earth is about 12, kilometerswhich would make its cross-section in outline presented to the Sun about If a Carrington CME flared up at a random point and at any random instant of time on the Sun's surface, it would have roughly a Also assumed is that the CME disperses as it leaves the Sun, covering a larger area at the radius of Earth from Sun, which provides a larger area for the Earth to fall within, but proportionally the same as the area of the CME on the surface of the Sun.

Implicit in this assumption is that a Carrington event occurs only if the Earth is directly in the center of that area, which may not be the case, given Pete Riley's much larger probability computed from observations, which is linked below. This is not the probability of two independent events: 1 CME occurs, and 2 Earth receives a direct hit. If this were considered as two independent events, the probability of 1 should be multiplied by the probability of 2.

You can see his method in this presentation he made to the Space Studies Board. Coronal mass ejections consist of eruptions from "ropes" of twisted magnetic field that extend out of the Sun's surface like kinks in a phone cord.

Text: Surviving in Space

If the magnetic field kinks too much, it bursts. Plasma in the ejections is composed of protons and electrons existing as independent charged particles. It's accompanied by ionizing radiation such as X-rays. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered.

Ask Question. Asked 3 years, 1 month ago. Active 3 years ago. Viewed 1k times. I am curious about the distribution of matter and radiation in a single CME event. AccidentalFourierTransform 33k 14 14 gold badges 82 82 silver badges bronze badges.One substance everyone uses every day is soap, whether it be for washing our hands using a bar of soap, doing the laundry or washing the floor with detergent.

2019 IELTS Reading Actual Test 09

Technically, soaps are ionic compounds from fatty acids and they are used for a variety of cleaning purposes. Soaps allow particles that cannot usually be dissolved in water to be soluble and then be washed away.

Although made in a different way, synthetic detergents operate in a similar fashion. The human skin is under daily attack from various things, such as scorching sun, drying winds, biting cold weather, bacteria and dirt, and so our distant ancestors learned quickly that preserving the health of skin is a way for better and longer life.

Popular in different civilisations, the benefits of soap finally managed to appeal to a wide European population in the 17th century, and, since then, the tradition of maintaining high personal hygiene has experienced only constant growth. The first concrete evidence we have of a soap-like substance is dated around BC. The first soap makers were Babylonians, Mesopotamians, Egyptians, as well as the ancient Greeks and Romans. All of them made soap by mixing fat, oils and salts.

Soap was not made and used for bathing and personal hygiene, but was rather produced for cleaning cooking utensils or goods or was used for medicinal purposes. Rain used to wash the fat from sacrificed animals along with wood ashes into the River Tiber, where the women who were washing clothes in it found the mixture made their washing easier.

Matching information: Reading Passage 3: Part 1

It is a nice story, but unfortunately there is no such place on record and no evidence for the mythical story. Soaps today come in three principal forms: bars, powders and liquids. Some liquid products are so viscous that they are gels. Raw materials are chosen according to many criteria, including their human and environmental safety, cost, compatibility with other ingredients, and the desired form and performance characteristics of the finished product. In ancient times, soap was made from animal fats and wood ashes.

Today, it is still produced from vegetable or animal fats and alkali. The main sources of fats are beef and mutton tallow, while palm, coconut and palm kernel oils are the principal oils. In the early beginnings of soap making, it was an exclusive technique used by small groups of soap makers.

The demand for early soap was high, but it was very expensive and there was a monopoly on soap production in many areas. Over time, recipes for soap making became more widely known, but soap was still expensive.

Modern soap was made by the batch kettle boiling method until shortly after World War II, when continuous processes were developed. Continuous processes are preferred today, because of their flexibility, speed and economics. The first part of the manufacturing process is to heat the raw materials to remove impurities.

This is followed by saponification, which involves adding a powerful alkali to the heated raw materials. The glycerine is recovered by chemical treatment, followed by evaporation and refining. Refined glycerine is an important industrial material used in foods, cosmetics, drugs and many other products. The next processing for the soap is vacuum spray drying to convert the neat soap into dry soap pellets. The moisture content of the pellets will be determined by the desired characteristics of the soap bar.

In the final processing step, the dry soap pellets pass through a bar soap finishing line. The first unit in the line is a mixer, called an amalgamator, in which the soap pellets are blended together with fragrance, shades and all other ingredients. The mixture is then homogenised and refined through rolling mills and refining plodders to achieve thorough blending and a uniform texture.

Finally, the mixture is cut into bar-size units and stamped into its final shape in a soap press.It had been extremely cold, with continental glaciers extending much further than they do today, but the climate started to warm.

However, temperatures suddenly reverted back and there was a short cold spell, known as the Younger Dryas, before the final warming and the official end of the last ice age. Based on Greenland ice core data, the Younger Dryas began and ended very abruptly.

Its start dates to 10, BCE, and its ending the final warming began circa BCE, and may have occurred within an incredible three years; given our inability to resolve the finest details of something that happened so long ago, it may have literally happened overnight. How do we explain this pattern of abrupt climatic shifts?

I once hypothesized that comets were responsible. A comet hitting the land or a shallow ocean, or exploding above the land's surface, scattering dust and debris into the atmosphere, could cause global cooling. However, the evidence does not support a comet hitting Earth at this time.

What about the warming event of circa BCE? In years past I speculated that comets hitting deep oceans were responsible. A comet might break the thin oceanic crust, releasing heat from the hot magma beneath. Vaporized and displaced water would rain down on Earth, and tsunamis would wash across coastal areas, warming the planet. But even with a comet, or a series of comets, bombarding the oceans, could the warming happen as quickly as the Greenland ice cores indicate?

I think not. But if not comets, what? Oddly, the indigenous Easter Island rongorongo script may hold the answer. But first we have to consider the concept of the fourth state of matter—plasma. Plasma consists of electrically charged particles. Familiar plasma phenomena on Earth today include lightning and auroras, the northern and southern lights, and upper atmospheric phenomena known as sprites.

In the past, much more powerful plasma events sometimes took place, due to solar outbursts and coronal mass ejections CMEs from the Sun, or possibly emissions from other celestial objects. Powerful plasma phenomena could cause strong electrical discharges to hit Earth, burning and incinerating materials on our planet's surface. Los Alamos plasma physicist Dr. Anthony L. Peratt and his associates have established that petroglyphs found worldwide record an intense plasma event or events in prehistory.

Peratt determined that powerful plasma phenomena observed in the skies would take on characteristic shapes resembling humanoid figures, humans with bird heads, sets of rings or donut shapes, and writhing snakes or serpents—shapes reflected in countless ancient petroglyphs. The Easter Island rongorongo script, recorded on antique wooden tablets, is composed of similar shapes as the petroglyphs.